No non-specialist can be expected to master the hundreds of pages comprising the formal energy schemes
sampled below, each of which comes with its own set of assumptions - regarding future energy demand, technological advances and political
break-throughs - and corresponding criticisms.
Because it is the market (given a science-based regulatory environment) that can best determine which technologies are most economic given
regional needs and resources, details in the make-up of the future clean-energy economy may differ substantially from what these studies contemplate.
But together, these reports illustrate - for private investors as well as public decision-makers - that the vision of reducing and ultimately eliminating fossil-fuel
carbon emissions is based on the same kind of hard-nosed economic and technical research that built our current energy economy.